Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

previous arrow
next arrow

Role of Calcium and Vegetation in salinity and desertification (Western India)

Pilania P. K. and N. S. Panchal

Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot


Excess salinity is one of the main factors for low productivity of land and desertification. To know the effect of salinity and sodicity on vegetation study was taken at Little Rann of Kutch (saline desert). Ca have positive since EC and Na have negative consequence on vegetation. Calcium enhances tolerance capacity for salinity/sodicity and diminishes their adverse effects on vegetation. Species found dominating were capable to tolerate high salinity/sodicity, temperature and low rainfall. 82 species representing 64 genera belonging to 25 families were recorded. Poaceae, Papilionaceae and Cyperaceae were dominant in herbs and Mimosaceae and Salvadoraceae in shrubs and trees. Cyperus rotundus Linn. (4.438 plants/m2) and Aeluropus lagopoides (Linn.) (4.104 plants/m2) were dominating in herbs and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) (7.109 plants/10m2) in shrubs and trees. Concentration of dominance and diversity indexes were very low. Sustainable management and novel indigenous plantation of species with high tolerance capacity should be made to enhance vegetation which will improve soil structure and help to combat salinity/sodicity and desertification.

Calcium; Desert; Salinity; Sodicity; Soil; Vegetation

Ashraf, M., 1994. Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 13:17– 42.

Bernstein, L., 1962. Salt affected soils and plants. Proceedings of the Paris Symposium, UNESCO, May 1960. Arid Zone Research, 18:139–174.

Bhattacharjee, S., 2008.Triadimefon pretreatment protects newly assembled membrane system and causes up-regulation of stress proteins in salinity stressed Amaranthus lividus L. during early germination. J. Environ. Biol., 29:805-810.

Bhatti, G.R., Shah, M.  and Qureshi, R., 1998-2001. Floristic study of arid zone (Desert Nara, Region), Sindh. Pakistan Science foundation Project. No. S-SALU/ ENVR (45).

Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R., 1996. The Nature and Properties of Soils.11th ed. Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Braun E.L., 1950. The Ecology of the Forests of Eastern North America, Their Development, Composition and Distribution. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. McGraw Hill, New York, Blakiston.

Charman, P.E.V. and Junor, R.S., 1989. Saline seepage and land degradation – a New South Wales perspective. BMR Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 2:195·203.

Chaudhri, I.I. and Chuttar, M.S., 1966. The vegetation and range Flora of Thar desert W. Pak. Forest deptartment, Hyderabad.

Cramer, G.R., Lynch, J., L¨auchli, A. and Epstein, E., 1987. Influx of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ into roots of salt-stressed cotton seedlings. Plant Physiology, 83:510–16.

Curtis, J.T. and Cottam, G., 1956. Plant Ecology WorkBook. Laboratory Field Reference Manual. Burgess Publishing Co. Minnisota.

Curtis, J.T. and Mclntosh, R.P., 1950. The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology, 31:434-455.

Curtis, J.T., 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin, An Ordination of Plant Communities. University Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

de Oliveira, A.B., Alencar, N.L.M.  and Filho, E.G., 2013. Comparison Between the Water and Salt Stress Effects on Plant Growth and Development. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/54223

Donahue, R.L., Miller, R.W. and Shickluna, J.C., 1983. Soils: An Introduction to Soils and Plant Growth. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 667 pp.

Ezcurra, E., 2006. Global deserts outlook. Division of Early Warning and Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.

Garg, B.K. and Gupta, I.C., 1997. Saline Wastelands Environment and Plant Growth. Jodhpur: Scientific Publishers.

Ghani, M.M. Abd. El. and Amer, W.M., 2003. Soil–vegetation relationships in a coastal desert plain of southern Sinai, Egypt. Journal of Arid Environments, 55:607–628.

Glenn, E.P., Brown, J.J. and Blumwald, E., 1999. Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes. Crit. Rev. Plant Science, 18:227–55.

Halfter, U., Ishitani, M. and Zhu, J.K., 2000. The Arabidopsis SOS2 protein kinase physically interacts with and is activated by the calcium-binding protein SOS3. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 97:3730–34.

Hasegawa, P.M., Bressan, R. A., Zhu, J.K. and Bohnert, H.J., 2000. Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 51:463–99.

Jaleel, C.A., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A. and Panneerselvam, R., 2007. Calcium chloride effects on salinity-induced oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation in Catharanthus roseus. C.R. Biologies, 330:674-683.

Kamphorst, A. and Bolt, G.H., 1978. Saline and sodic soils. Ch.9, Soil Chemistry A. Basic Elements. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Bolt, G.H., and Bruggenwert, M.G.M. (Ed.), Developments in Soil Science 5A, Amsterdam-Oxford-New York.

Kershaw, K.A., 1973. Quantitative and Dynamic Plant Ecology. London: Edward Arnold Ltd.

Khan, T.I., Dular, A.K. and Solomon, D., 2003. Biodiversity conservation in the Thar desert, with emphasis on endemic and medicinal plants. The Environmentalists, 23:137-144.

Knight, H., Trewavas, A.J. and Knight, M.R., 1997. Calcium signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana responding to drought and salinity. Plant J., 12:1067–78.

Kramer, P.J., 1983. Water Relations of Plants. New York: Academic Press, pp. 489.

L¨auchli, A. and Schubert, S., 1989. The role of calcium in the regulation of membrane and cellular growth processes under salt stress. NATO ASI Ser. G19:131–37.

Lindsay, W.L. and Norvell, A.W., 1978. Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper.  Soil Sci. Am. J., 12, 421-428.

Liu, J., Ishitani, M., Halfter, U., Kim, C.S. and Zhu, J.K., 2000. The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 97: 3735–40.

Liu, J. and Zhu, J.K., 1997. An Arabidopsis mutant that requires increased calcium for potassium nutrition and salt tolerance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:14960–64.

Luo, Q., Yu, B. and Liu, Y., 2005. Differential sensitivity to chloride and sodium ions in seedlings of Glycine max and G. soja under NaCl stress. J. Plant Physiol., 162, 1003-1012.

Lynch, J., Polito, V.S. and L¨auchli, A., 1989. Salinity stress increases cytoplasmic Ca2+activity in maize root protoplasts. Plant Physiol. 90:1271–74.

Magurran, A.E., 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University, New Jersey.

Mahanta, K.K., Kansal, M.L. and Mishra, G.C., 2015. Managing salt affected soils: Issues and strategies. Sky Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 4(1):001 – 009.

Margalef, R., 1958. Perspective in ecological theory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Marschner, H,. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. London: Academic Press, pp 889.

Mathur, M. and Sundaramoorthy, S., 2013. Economic assessment and conservation priorities of the Indian Thar desert medicinal plants. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 4(3):283-294.

McCue, K.F. and Hanson, A.D., 1990. Salt-inducible betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from sugar beet: cDNA cloning and expression. Trends Biotechnol., 8:358–362.

Mendoza, I., Rubio, F., Rodriguez-Navarro, A. and Pardo, J.M., 1994. The protein phosphatise calcineurin is essential for NaCl tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem., 269:8792–96.

Mer, R.K., Prajith, P.K., Pandya, D.H. and Pandey, A.N., 2000. Effect of salts on germination of seeds and growth of young plants of Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Cicer arietinum and Brassica juncea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 185:209-217.

Misra, R., 1968. Ecology workbook. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Monk, C.D., 1967. Tree species diversity in eastern deciduous forest with particular reference to north central Florida, American Naturalist, 101:173-187.

Munns, R. and Tester, M., 2008. Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 59:651–81.

Munns, R., 1993. Physiological processes limiting plant growth in saline soils, some dogmas and hypotheses. Plant Cell Environ., 16:15–24.

Niu, X., Bressan, R.A., Hasegawa, P.M. and Pardo, J.M., 1995. Ion homeostasis in NaCl stress environments. Plant Physiology, 109:735–42.

Pande, P.K., Negi, J.D.S and Sharma, S.C., 1996. Plant species diversity and vegetation analysis in moist temperate Himalayan forests. Abstracted in First Indian Ecological Congress, New Delhi. 27-31 Dec.

Parejiya, N.B, Detroja, S.S and Panchal, N.S., 2015. Analysis of herbaceous vegetation of Bandiyabedi forest grassland of Surendranagar district in Gujarat (India). International Journal of Science & Medical Research, 2:28-46.

Parejiya, N. B., Detroja, S. S. and Panchal, N. S., 2013. Vegetation analysis at Bandiyabedi Forest in Surendranagar district of Gujarat state of India. Int. Journal LifeScience Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 2(2):241-247.

Parthasarathy, N., Kinbal, V. and Kumar, L.P., 1992. Plant species diversity and human impact in the tropical wet evergreen forests of southern Western Ghats. Indo-French Workshop on tropical forest ecosystem: Natural Functioning and Anthropogenic Impact. French Institute.Nov., Pondichery.

Parveen, A. and Hussain, M.I., 2007. Plant biodiversity and phytosociological attributes of Gorakh Hill (Khirthar Rage). Pak. J. Bot., 38(3): 691-698.

Perez-Prat, E., Narasimhan, M.L., Binzel, M.L., Botella, M.A., Chen Z, et al., 1992. Induction of a putative Ca2C-ATPase mRNA in NaCl-adapted cells. Plant Physiol., 100:1471–78.

Phillips, E.A., 1959. Methods of Vegetation Study. A Holt-Dryden Book.  Henry Holt & Co.

Pilania , P.K., Gujar, R.V., Joshi, P.M., Shrivastav, S.C. and Panchal,  N.S., 2015. Phytosociological and Ethanobotanical Study of Trees in a Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest in Panchmahal District of Gujarat, Western India. The Indian Forester, 141(4):422-427.

Pilania, P.K. and Panchal, N.S., 2013. Vegetation analysis at Little Rann of Kachchh in Mallya Tehsil of Morbi District of Gujarat State in India. Journal of Basic and Applied Biology, 7: 6-10.

Pilania, P.K. and Panchal, N.S., 2014. Soil and plant relation at Little Rann of Kutch of Gujarat in western India. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2(7):1-10.

Pilania, P.K. and Panchal, N.S., 2014a. Ecological study at Little Rann of Kutch (near Wild Ass Sanctuary) of Gujarat in Western India. Life Science Leaflets, 54:1-15.

Pilania, P.K., Vaghasiya, P.M., Panera, N.M., Mirani, M.K. and Panchal,  N.S., 2014.  Ecological study at Morbi district near Little Rann of Kachchh in western India. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2(4):5-13.

Pilania, P.K., Gujar, R.V. and Panchal,  N.S., 2014a. Species diversity and phytosociological analysis of important plants of tropical dry deciduous forest of Dahod district of Gujarat, India. International Journal of Science & Medical Research, 1:37-46.

Pilania, P.K., Gujar, R.V., Bhatt, J.D., Joshi, P.M., Joshi, A.B., Shrivastav, S.C. and Panchal,  N.S., 2014b. Tree diversity and utilities in homegardens of south Gujarat, western India: An Overview. International Journal of Science & Medical Research, 1:37-46.

Qureshi, R., 2008. Vegetation assessment of Sawan wari of Nara desert, Pakistan. Pak. J. Botany, 40(5):1885-1895.

Rajput, M.T., Ahmed, B., Tahir, S.S. and Bhatti, N.M., 1991. A study of medicinal plants of Thar Desert. Sindh Uni. Res. Jour. (Sci. Sr.), 23(1):15-26.

Ramoliya, P.J. and Pandey, A.N., 2003. Effect of salinization of soil on emergence, growth and survival of seedlings of Cordia rothii. Forest Ecol. Manage., 176:185–194.

Rengasamy, P., 2002. Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dryland farming in Australian sodic soils: an overview. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 42:351–61.

Sahu, S.C., Dhal, N.K. and Mahanty, R.C., 2012. Tree species diversity, distribution and population structure in a tropical dry deciduous forest of Boudh district, Orissa, India. Research journal of forestry, 1:66-72.

Sairam, R. K. and Tyagi, A., 2004. Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Current Science, 86(3): 407-421.

Sanders, D., Brownlee, C. and Harper, J., 1999. Communicating with calcium. Plant Cell, 11:691–706.

Shabala, S., Shabala, L. and Volkenburgh, E.V., 2003. Effect of calcium on root development and root ion fluxes in salinised barley seedlings. Functional Plant Biology, 30: 507-514.

Shannon, C.E. and Wiener, W., 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana University, Illinois Press.

Simpson, E.H., 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163: 688.

Sumner, M.E., 1993. Sodic soils: new perspectives. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 31: 683-750.

Tuteja, N., 2007.  Mechanisms of High Salinity Tolerance in Plants. Methods in Enzymology, 428: 419-438.

USDA-ARS, 2008. Research Databases. Bibliography on Salt Tolerance. George E. Brown, Jr. Salinity Lab. US Dep. Agric., Agric. Res. Serv. Riverside, CA. http://www. ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=8908.

Vaghasiya, P.M.,  Pilania, P.K., Panera, N.M., Mirani, M.K.  and Panchal, N.S., 2015. Analysis of vegetation at Saline desert (Great Rann of Kutch) of Gujarat state in western India. International Journal of Science & Medical Research, 2:67-83.

Wang, S., Kitamura, Y. and Yano, T., 1998. Reclamation of gypsiferous and nongypsiferous sodic soils by leaching. Soil Phys. Cond. Plant Growth, Jpn., 80: 21-32.

Wimmers, L.E., Ewing, N.N. and Bennett, A.B., 1992. Higher plant Ca2+-ATPase: primary structure and regulation of mRNA abundance by salt. Proc. Natl. Academy. science USA, 89:9205–9 .

Yeo, A.R., 1998. Molecular biology of salt tolerance in the context of whole-plant physiology. Journal Exp. Bot., 49:915–29.

Yokoi, S., Bressan, R. A. and Hasegawa, P.M., 2002. Salt Stress Tolerance of Plants.

Zhu, J.K., 2001. Over expression of a delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene and analysis of tolerance to water and salt stress in transgenic rice. Trends Plant Sci., 6:66–72.

Pilania, P. K., & Panchal, N. S. (2016). Role of Calcium and Vegetation in salinity and desertification (Western India). Environment Conservation Journal17(1&2), 119-135.


Received: 15.02.2016


Accepted: 15.05.2016

First Online: 25.06. 2016



Publisher Name:  Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness (ASEA)

Print : 0972-3099

Online :2278-5124