Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

previous arrow
next arrow

Soil quality and extent of soil-plant transfer of trace metals in areas adjoining the Benin-Ethiope fluvial system in the vicinity of Sapele, Nigeria


Samuel Omorovie Akporido, Onoriode Onos Emoyan and Ayo R. Ipeaiyeda

Department of Chemistry, Delta State University PMB 1, Abraka, Nigeria.


Spillages of oil from processes of discharge of imported petroleum products and lubricating base oil and the process of production of lubricating oils can have adverse effect on water, sediments, soil, and biota of an environment. The study examined the effect of these spillages of oils on the soil by determining oil residues, physicochemical parameters of soils, and the concentrations of seven heavy metals in soil and plant of the area. Soil and plant samples were collected from areas around the Benin-Ethiope Fluvial system in the vicinity of Sapele Town and her satellite towns. Total petroleum hydrocarbons TPH and other physicochemical parameters of soil were determined by standard methods. Heavy metals in soil and plant were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after appropriate wet acid digestion procedures. Average values of important parameters determined in soil were: pH, 6.5±1.0; TPH, 1930 mgkg-1; Cr, 4.4±2.1 mgkg-1; Cu, 7.0±4.3 mgkg-1; Zn, 99±63 mgkg-1; Pb, 35.5±9.0 mgkg-1; Cd, 3.3±0.9 mgkg-1; Ni, 7.6±5.5 mgkg-1 and Mn, 167±170 mgkg-1. Results showed that the levels of pH and pollutant parameters (which include TPH and the heavy metals) were significantly higher in the study area than the control area. The average values of pH, Cd, Zn and TPH in most of the sampling stations exceeded soil guideline values (SGVs) (lower than guideline range in the case of pH). Transfer factors of most of metals indicated that they had been moderately transferred from soil to plant. Various indexes calculated in the study also showed that the soils in the study area were of low quality as a result of these pollutants.

Benin-Ethiope Flavial System; Sapele Town; Total petroleum Hydrocarbons; Heavy metals; atomic absorption spectrometry; Transfer factor; soil guideline values

Adekambi, O.E. 1989. Petroleum hydrocarbons pollution of the Nigerian waters and sediments around Lagos and Niger Delta area of Nigeria. A Ph.D Thesis of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Adeniyi, A. A. and Owoade, O. J. 2010. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace heavy metals in roadside soils along the lagos-Badagry expressway, Nigeria. Environ. Monit. and Assess., 167 (1 – 4): 625 – 6308.

Akporido, S. O. and Asagba, S. O. Quality characteristics of soil close to the Benin River in the vicinity of a lubricating oil producing factory, Koko, Nigeria. Int. J. Soil Sci., 2013, 8 (1), 1 – 16

Akporido, S. O. and kadiri, H. E. 2014. Effect of urbanization and industrialization on the waters of the Benin river-Ethiope River System around Sapele, Nigeria. Global Advanced J. of phys. and Appl. Sci., 2014, 3 (3): 035 . 050

Akporido, S. O., Agbaire, P.O., and Ipeaiyeda, A. R. (2014). Effect of steel production on the    quality of soil aroundUdu section of Warri River in the vicinity of a steel plant, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Science, 7 (7): 552 – 562. Doi: 10.3923/ajaps.2014.552.567.

Akporido, S. O., Emoyan, O. O. And Otobrise, C. 2015. Sediment pollution of the Benin – Ethiope fluvial system around Sapele (Nigeria) from industrial and Urban waste. International Research Journal of public and Environmental Health, 2 (1): 4 – 15

Akporido, S.O. and Ipeaiyeda, A. R. (2014). An assessment of the oil and heavy metal profile of sediments of the Benin River adjacent to a lubricating oil producing factory, Delta state Nigeria. International Research Journal of public and Environmental Health, 1 (2), 40 – 53

Allens, S.E.,  Davison, W., Grimshaw, H. M. , Perkinson, J.A., Quarulby, C. and    Rowland, A. P. 1989. Chemical analysis of ecological materials, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 

Almeida, R., Mucha, A. P., Teixeira, C., Burdalo, A. A., and Almeida, C. M. 2013. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence. Biodegr., 24 (1), 111 – 123

Anderson, D. M. And Morel, F. M. 1978. Copper sensitivity of Gonyaulax tanarensis. Limnol. Oceanogr., 23: 283 – 295

Anyakora, C., Coker, H. and Arbabi, M. 2011. Application of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in chemical finger printing: the Niger Delta case study. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering,. 8 (1), 75 – 84

Asia, I.O., Jegede, S. I., Jegede, D. A. Ize-Iyamu O. K. and Akpasubi, E. B. 2007 The effect of Petroleum exploration and production operation on heavy metals contents of soil and groundwater in the Niger Delta. Int. J. of Phys. Sci.,. 2(10): 271-275.

Awomeso, J. A., Taiwo, A. M., Gbadebo, A.M. and Adenowo, J. A. (2010) ‘Studies on the pollution of waterbody by Textile industry effluent in Lagos, Nigeria’ Journal of Appl. Sci. in Environ. Sanit.,  5 (4), 353 – 359.

Bai, J. F., Zhang, C. L., Wang, J. W., Xu, J. Q., Zhou, Y. And Wu, W. J. 2012.Environmental risk and recoverable potential, evaluation of heavy metals in the sludge from the industrial wastewater in China, Adv. Mater. Res., 508: 196 – 199.

Black, C. A. Methods of soil Analysis Agronomy No 9 Part 2 Amer. Soc. Agronomy. Madison. Wisconsin.

Berthou, F., Gourmolun, Y., Dreano, Y. and Friocourt, P. 1981.  Application of gas chromatography on glass capillary column to the analysis of hydrocarbon pollutants from the Amoco Cadiz oil spill.  Journal of chromatography 203, 277-292

Big, C. L., Lacatus, R. And Damian, F. 2012. Heavy metals in soil – plant system around Baia Mare city,  Romania. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental sciences, 7 (3): 219 – 230

CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment), 1999  Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health.  In:Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, 1999.  Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Winnipeg, .

Chojnacka, K., Chojnacka, A., Gorecka, H. and Gorecki, H. (2005). Bioavailability of heavy metals from polluted soils to plants. Science of the Total Environment, 337, 175 – 182

Cui, Y.-J., Zhu, Y. G., Zhu, R. H., Chen, D. Y., Huang, Y.-Z., Qui, Y. Liang, J.-Z (2005). Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment International, 30, 785 – 791

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affaires (DEFRA), 2006. Assessing risk from land contamination – a proportionate approach. Soil guideline values: the way forward. (accessed 02-01-2014)

DPR (Department of Petroleum Resources), 2002. Environmental guidelines and standards for the petroleum industry in Nigeria. Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), Victoria Island Lagos, Nigeria,.

Environment  Agency, 2013. Soil guideline values. Environment Agency, values-sgv/.

Federal Office of Environment, Forest and Landscape (FOEFL),1987. Commentary on the ordinance Relating to pollutants in soil (VSBO of June 1986),FOEFL, Bern, Switzerland,

Forstner, U. and Whitman, G. T. W. 1983. Metals in the aquatic environment, New York. Springer-Verlag

Fu, X-W., Wang, D – G., Ren, X – H. And Cui, Z – J. 2014. Spatial distribution patterns and potential sources of heavy metals in soils of a crude oil – polluted region in china. Pedosphere, 24 (4): 508 – 518

Giri, S,. Singh, A. K. And Tewary, 2013. Source and distribution of metals in bed sediments of Subarnarekha River, India. Environ. Earth Sci., 70: 3381 – 3392

Haapala, K. R. Catalina, A. V., Johnson, M. L. And Sutherland, J. W. 2012. Development and application of models for steel making and casting environmental performance. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., vol 134. 10.1115/1.4007463

Jasmine, J. and Mukherji, S (2015). Characterization of oil sludge from refinery and biodegradability assessment using various hydrocarbon degrading strains and reconstituted consortia. Journal of Environmental Management, 149, 118 – 125.

Kalita, M., Bhattacharyya, K. G. and Devi, A. (2009). Assessment oil field soil with special references to the presence of heavy metals: a case study in agricultural soil of Rudrasagar oil field , Assam. India J. Environ. Prot., 29 (12): 1065 – 1071

Karim, Z. and Qureshi, B. A. 2014. Health risk Assessment of heavy metals in urban soil of Karachi, Pakistan. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An international Journal, 20 (3): 658 – 667.

Kashif, S.R., Akran, M., Yaseez, M. andAli, S. (2009). Studies on heavy metals status and their uptakes by vegetables in adjoining areas  of Hudiara drain in Lahore. Soil and Environment, 28 (1), 7 – 12

Lacatusu, R. 1998 Appraising levels of soil contamination and pollution with heavy metals. European Soil Bureau – Research Report No. 4.

Langston, W. J. 1990  Toxic effects of metals and the incidence of metals pollution in marine ecosystems.  In Furness, R. W. and Rainbow, P. S. (eds).  Heavy Metals in the marine environment. CRS ress Boca Ration FL  pp. 101-122.

Li, P., Lin, C., Cheng, H., Duan, X. and Lei, K. 2014. Contamination and health risks of soil heavy metals around a lead/zinc smelter in southwestern China. Ecotoxicol. and Environ. Safety,  113: 391 – 399

Loska, K., Wiechula, D. and Korus, I. 2004. Metal contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environ. Int., 30 (2): 159 – 165

Luiselli, L., G.C. Akani and E. Politano, 2006. Effects of habitat alteration caused by petrochemical activities and oil spills on the habitat use and interspecific relationships among four species of afrotropical freshwater turtles. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(11), 3756-3767.

Martin, J. M. and Meybeck, 1979. Elemental mass balance of materials carried by major rivers. Mar. Chem., 7: 175 – 206

Mihali, C., Oprea, G. Michnea, A., Jelea, S., Jelea, M., Man, C., Senila, M. and Griger, L. 2013. Assessment of heavy metal content and pollution and pollution level in soil and plant in Baia mare area, NW Romania. Carpathian J. of Earth and Environ. Sci.,  8 (2): 143 – 152.

Nie, M., Xian, N., Fu, X., Chen, X. and Li, B, 2010. The Interactive effect of petroleum-hydrocarbon spillage and plant rhizosphene on concentrations and distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the Yellow River Delta, China. J. Hazard.  Mater. 174 (1 – 3), 156 – 161

Okereke, J.J., S.O. Obiekezie and K.O. Obasi, 2007. Microbial flora of oil-spilled sites in Egbema, Imo State Nigeria. African J. of Biotech.,  6(8): 991-993

Olajire, A. A., Altenburger, R., Kuster, E. and Brack, W. 2005.  Chemical and ecotoxicological assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated sediments of Niger Delta, Southern Nigeria.  Science of the Total Environment 340(1-3): 123-136.

Olawoyin, R., Oyewole, S. A. and Greyson, Robert L.20123 Potential risk effect from elevated levels of soil heavy metals on human health in the Niger Delta. Ecotoxicol.  Environ. Safety,  85 (1): 120 – 130.

Otokunefor, T.V. and Obiukwu, C. (2005). Impact of Refinery effluent on the physicochemical properties of awater body in the Niger Delta. Appl. Ecol. and Environ. Res., 3(1): 61 – 72

Oudot, J., Fusey, P., Van Praat, M., Feral, J. P. And Gaill, F. 1981.  Hydrocarbon weathering in seashore invertebrates and sediments over a two year period following the Amoco Cadiz Spill: Influence of microbal metabolism.  Environmental Pollution Series A. 26, 93-110.

Perez-Casanova, J. C.,Hamontere, D., Samuelson, S., Burt, K., King, T. L. and Lee, K. 2010.  The immune response of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to chronic exposure to produced water. Mar. Environ. Res.  70 (1),  26 – 34.

Plaza, G. A., Nalecz-Jawecki, G., Pinyakong, O., Illmmer, P. And Margesin, R. 2010. Ecotoxicological and microbiological characterization of soils from heavy-metal and hydrocarbon – contaminated sites. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 163 (1 – 4), 477 – 488.

Puyate, Y. T., Rim-Rukeh and Awatefe, J. K. 2007. Metal pollution assessment and particle size Distribution of bottom sediment of Orogodo River, Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sciences Res., 3 (12): 2056 – 2061.

Sutherland, R. A. 2000. Bed sediment – associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environ. Geol., 39 (6): 611 – 627.

United Environment Programme (UNEP). 2011. Environmental assessment of Ogoniland. United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi.

United Nation Development Programme (UNDP). 2006 Niger Delta Human Development.,3368,en.html.Accessed 19 June, 2011.

Wang, P. –J., Liu, L., Li, F. –S., Hu, Z. –Q. and Bai, L. –P. 2011. Characteristic distribution of typical contaminants in the soil of a coking plant site in the southwest of china. Meitan Xuebao/Journal of the China Coal Society 36 (9), 1587 – 1592.

Yang, T., Liu, Q., Zeng, Q. and Chan, L. 2009. Environmental Magnetic responses of Urbanization processes: Evidence from Lake sediments in East Lake, Wuhan, China. Geophys. J. Int., 179 (2), 873 – 886.

Akporido, S. O., Emoyan, O. O., & Ipeaiyeda, A. R. (2018). Soil quality and extent of soil-plant transfer of trace metals in areas adjoining the Benin-Ethiope fluvial system in the vicinity of Sapele, Nigeria. Environment Conservation Journal, 19(1&2), 17-37.


Received: 15.09.2017

Revised: 10.11.2017

Accepted: 12.12.2017

First Online: 20.06. 2018



Publisher Name:  Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness (ASEA)

Print : 0972-3099           

Online :2278-5124