Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

previous arrow
next arrow
Slider

Water quality changes and winter mortality of major carps (Cyprinus carpio communis and Cyprinus carpio specularis) in Mansar Lake (a Ramsar Site), Jammu, J&K, India

Sheikh Assadullah and Slathia Deepika

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu, J&K, India

Abstract

Lake Mansar, a subtropical and warm monomictic Ramsar wetland, is an important flyway for various winter migratory birds. During the present study, winter mortality of exotic carps weighing about 50gm to 2kg was observed in the lake during late December 2015 to early February 2016. Mortality was observed more in January as hundreds of small and few large dead fishes weighing >1.5kg were seen on different sites of the lakes during our visits to the lake. Among these, mortality percentage of Cyprinus carpio communis and Cyprinus carpio specularis was about 90% and 10%, respectively. Water quality analysis revealed low dissolved oxygen and high free CO2and BOD content in the lake water. Several field visits carried out over a period of several weeks, prior to, during, and after mortality, have led us to the conclusion that stress resulted from depletion of dissolved oxygen and increased free CO2 and was the main cause of sudden fish mortality. Although some fish kill in subtropical lakes during winters is a natural phenomenon but mass fish kills indicate some type of environmental stress and are ecologically unacceptable. As Mansar is a famous tourist destination in J&K, such mass fish kills pose serious threat to the economy of the State and affect the health of the inhabitants who rely on the lake for meeting their water requirements. Comparison of water quality data of winter months(December to February)of three years viz. year before (2014-15), during (2015-16) and after (2016-17) mass fish kill has shown lowest DO and highest free CO2record during the year of fish kill (2015-16) which further supports the present findings. The study proposes installation of aerators at different locations to aerate the lake water in order to prevent winter kills in future.

Exotic species, lake overturn, Mansar lake, Ramsar site, water quality, winter kill

APHA. 2005 Standard Methods for the Examination of water & Wastewater APHA, 21st Edition, American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.

Arora, H. C., Chattopadhyay, S. N. and Sharma, U. P. 1970 A probable occurrence of fish mortality in Renusagar Renukoot due to chlorine bearing wastes. Environ. Hlth. 12: 260-272.

Banerjea, S. Motwani, M. P. and Karamchandani, S. J. 1956.  A case of heavy fish mortality in the River Son a Dehri on sone, Bihar caused by the wastes of the Rohtas Industries Ltd., Dalmianagar. Indian J. Fish, 3: 186-196.

Beamish, R. J. and Harvey, H. H. 1972. Acidification of the La Cloche mountain lakes, Ontario and resulting fish mortalityJ. Fisheries Resources Board of Canada, 29 (8): 1131-143.

Bhagat, M. J., Dwivedi, S. N.  and Bohra, O. P. 1979.  A note on the fish mortality in Powailake, Bombay. Geobios, 5: 180-181.

Bickler, P. E. and Buck, L. T. 2007. Hypoxia tolerance in reptiles, amphibians, and fishes: life with variable oxygen availability. Annual Review of Physiology 69, 145– 70.

Diaz, R. J. and Breitburg, D. L. 2009. The Hypoxic Environment. In “Hypoxia. Fish Physiology. Volume 27.” (Richards, J. G., Farrell, A. P. and Brauner, C. J., Eds.). Elsevier Inc.

Dutta, S. P. S., Slathia, D.  and Chandbala 2014. Incidences of winter fish kill in subtropical Surinsar Lake (Ramsar Site) in Shivalik hills of Jammu (J&K). Environment Conservation Journal, 15(3):35-40

Dutta, S. P. S., Kaul, V., Sharma, J. and Kaur, H. 1997.  An incidence of fish kill in Behlolnullah, a tributary of river Tawi, Jammu, J&K. J. Env. Biol. 18(3): 263-266.

Ganapati, S. V.  and Alikunhi, K. H. 1950.  Factory effluents from the Mettur dam, Madras and their pollution effects on the fisheries of the River Cauvery. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India. 16: 189-200.

Heil, A., Patricia, M., Glibert, Mohammad, A., Al-Sarawi, Faraj, M., Behbehani, M. and Husain, M. 2001.  First record of a fish-killing Gymnodinium sp. bloom in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Sea: chronology and potential causes Cynthia, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 214: 15–23.

Helfrich, L. A. 2009. Fish Kills: Their Causes and Prevention.Virginia Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. http://www.ext.vt.edu.publication 420-252 pp1-4.

Hingorani, H. G.,  Rao, K. M. and  Rao, R. R. 1977.  An attempt to study pollution and fish mortality in HussainSagarreservoir  in Hyderabad. J. Indian Fish. Assoc. 4(1&2): 74

Holeton, G. F. 1980.  Oxygen as an environmental factor of fishes. In Environmental Physiology of Fishes Edited by M. A. Ali (1980). International board of publishers in conjunction with NATO Scientific Affairs Division.pp7-32

Hurst, T. P. 2007. Causes and consequences of winter mortality in fishes.  Journal of Fish Biology, 71(2): 315–345.

Kangur, K., Ginter, K., Kangur, P., Kangur, A., Nõges, P. and Laas, A. 2016.  Changes in water temperature and chemistry preceding a massive kill of bottom-dwelling fish: an analysis of high-frequency buoy data of shallow Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia). Centre for Limnology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Rannu, Estonia, Inland Waters, 6, pp.535-542

Khan, M. A. and Hussain,  M. A. 1976.  Preliminary observations on pollution of HussainSagar Lake caused by industrial effluent Indian. J. Environ. Health.18(3): 227-232.

Krishnamoorthy, K. P.  and Visweswara, G. 1963. Hydrobiological studies with reference to sudden fish mortality Hydrobiologia. 21,( 3): 275–303

Kumar, V., Rai, S. P.  and Singh, O. 2006. Water Quantity and Quality of Mansar Lake Located in the Himalayan Foothills, India. Lake and Reservoir Management, 22(3):191-198.

Malhotra,  Y. R., Jyoti, M. K. and Sehgal, H. 1979.  Causes of size and sex restricted kill of Puntius conchonius in a subtrophical lake in Jammu. Ind. J. Exp. Biol.17 (8): 836-837.

Maryland department of Environment 2017.  Gunpowder/Bird River Fish Kill December 18, 2016. Report published in partnership with Maryland deptt of Natural Resources and Centre for Environmental Science, University of Maryland on February 14 2017

Moore, W. G. 1942. Field studies on the oxygen requirements of certain fresh water fishes. Ecology, 23:317-329.

Orietta, E.  2016. Thousands of Dead Sardines Found Floating in Chile’s Queule River  https://www.ecowatch.com

Pandita, R. N. 2005.  Survey report on fisheries resources of District Udhampur. Department of Fisheries. J and K Govt. 52-60.

Powers,  E. B. 1938. Factors involved in the Mortality of fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 67: 271-281.

Rao, K. V. R., Pandey, A. K. and Pandey, P. 1989-1990 An instance of major fish kill (Notopterus notopterus) in HussainSagar (Lake) on 24th April), 1990. Matsya ,15 and 16 : 164-167.

Richards, J. G. 2009. Metabolic and Molecular Responses of Fish to Hypoxia. In “Hypoxia. Fish Physiology. Volume 27” (Richards, J. G., Farrell, A. P. and Brauner, C. J., Eds.). Elsevier Inc. PLOS ONE 9(4): e94524.  https:// doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone. 0094524

Ruparelia, S. G. ,Verma, Y., Mehta, N. S., Saiyed, S. R. and Ramprasad, T. N. 1986.  An episode of massive fish mortality in Lake Kankariya- A case study and follow up surveillance. IndianJ. Ecol. 13: 10-14.

Ruuhijarvi, J., Rask, M., Vesala, S., Westermark, A., Olin, M., Keskitalo, J. and Lehtovaara, A.2010.  Recovery of the fish community and changes in the lower trophic levels in a eutropic lake after winter kill of fish. Hydrobiologia, 645:145-158.

Sanzi, N. 1981. Fish mortality in Bawaria in 1979.  Fisher Teichwirt. 32: 136-139.

Small, K., Kopf, R. K., Watts, R. J., Howitt, J. 2014.  Hypoxia, Blackwater and Fish Kills: Experimental Lethal Oxygen Thresholds in Juvenile Predatory Lowland River Fishes.

Vasisht, H. S. and Sra, G. S. 1979. The Biological Characteristics of Chandigarh waste waters in relation to Physio-Chemical Factors. Proc. Symp. Environ. Biol., 429-440

Wanganeo, A., Pani, S., Nandan, M.J. and Suresh, I. V. 1994. Incidence of fish mortality in lower lake of Bhopal. Geobios, 21(2):145-146.

Assadullah, S., & Deepika, S. (2018). Water quality changes and winter mortality of major carps (Cyprinus carpio communis and Cyprinus carpio specularis) in Mansar Lake (a Ramsar Site), Jammu, J&K, India. Environment Conservation Journal19(1&2), 51-58.

https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2018.191206

Received: 05.05.2017

Revised: 12.06.2017

Accepted: 02.07.2017

First Online: 20.06. 2018

:https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2018.191206

MANUSCRIPT STATISTICS

Publisher Name:  Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness (ASEA)

Print : 0972-3099

Online :2278-5124