Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Environment
Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"

(A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)

ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

previous arrow
next arrow
Slider

Adaptive skill of Schizothorax sp. of river Alaknanda under long term pressure of urbanization and anthropogenic activities in Garhwal Himalaya

Thapliyal M.
Department of Zoology, Government Degree College, Raipur, Dehradun
Bahuguna S. N.

Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, HNB Garhwal University (Central University), Campus College Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand

Thapliyal A.

Department of Biotechnology/Life Sciences, Graphic Era (Deemed to be University), Dehradun

Abstract

It is universally accepted that humans are having a major impact on every aspect of earth’s ecological habitats because humans are engaged in urbanization and anthropogenic activity. All the major watershed areas of Garhwal Himalayan region (Alaknanda, Bhagarathi/Ganges and Yamuna) have witnessed urbanization and anthropogenic activity. One hydroelectric power project (330 MW) is located on river Alaknanda at Srinagar Garhwal in Garhwal Himalaya. The project started during the mid1990s by GVK group and completed around 2014. A long term study on fecundity of Schizothorax sp. at Srinagar Garhwal was carried out between the years 1996 to 1998. This study was compared to other recent studies on same species at same location between the years 2016-19. This period covers the entire timeline of construction phase to commissioning phase of this hydroelectric power project. Various parameters with reference to breeding biology and fecundity were measured from Schizothorax sp. Mature specimens ranging in average weight from 384g to 1482g and average length from 320mm to 544mm were observed. Weight of ovary in the fish fluctuated from 38g to 219g. Fecundity of samples varied from a minimum to 3009 to a maximum of 13649 to 13840. The mathematical relationship of fecundity with other variables viz: fish length, fish weight, ovary weight and ovary length, and between fish weight and ovary weight and ovary length was calculated. The computed relationships were found to be highly significant especially between fecundity and fish length (r=0.940, p<0.01), fecundity and fish weight (r=0.937, p<0.01) and fecundity and ovary volume (r=0.913, p>0.01). The values of regression coefficient (b) and correlation coefficient (r) were computed separately. The data when compared to recent data of other authors reveals that Schizothorax sp. have sustained their fecundity due to their unique adaptive skill but have shifted their breeding grounds slightly. This shifting of breeding ground might be due to anthropogenic activity. Further studies would be needed to see if the breeding grounds are also restored.

Fecundity, Gonadosomatic Index, Schizothorax, Sringar Garhwal, Garhwal Himalaya, Hydroelectric Power project

Agarwal, N. K. and  Singh, H. 2009. Snow trout fishery in Garhwal Himalaya: causes of depletion and strategy for propagation. Environment Conservation Journal, 10(1-2): 141-146.

Agarwal, N. K., Singh W. and Singh, H. R. 1988. Fecundity of the snow-trout, Schizothorax plagiostomus (Heckel) from Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association, 18:  537-548.

Bisht, J. S. and Joshi, M. L. 1975. Seasonal histological changes in the ovaries of a mountain stream teleost, Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray and Hard). Cells Tissues Organs, 93(4): 512-525.

Gandotra, R., Shanker, R. and Singh, D. 2009. Studies on fecundity of snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) from the lotic bodies of Rajouri district (J&K). Current World Environment, 4(1): 127-132.

Jan, M., Jan, U. and Shah, G. M. 2014. Studies on fecundity and Gonadosomatic index of Schizothorax plagiostomus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6(1): 5375-5379.

Jyoti, M. K. and Malhotra, Y. R. 1972. Studies on fecundity schizothorax niger (heckel) from Dal lake Kashmir. Journal of Experimental Biology, 10: 74-75.

Kandler, R. and Pirwitz, W. 1957.  Uber die fruch barkeit der platt fische in Nordses-Ostee Raum.  Kieler Meeresfrosch 13(1): 11-34.

Kern, E. M. and Langerhans, R. B. 2018. Urbanization drives contemporary evolution in stream fish. Global Change Biology.  DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14115

Madhu, T., Bahuguna, S. N., Tribhuwan, C. and Ashish, T. 2012. Induced breeding of snowtrout (Schizothorax richardsonii-Gray), from Garhwal Himalaya (Uttarakhand, India) by pituitary gland extract. Environment Conservation Journal, 13(1-2): 23-29.

Nautiyal, P. and Lal, M. S. 1985. Fecundity of the Garhwal Himalayan mahseer Tor putitora(Ham.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 82(2): 253-257.

Nikolsky, G.V. 1969. Theory of Fish Population Dynamics. Otto Science Publishers, Koenigstein: 317.

Oke, K. B., Rolshausen, G., LeBlond, C. and Hendry, A. P. 2017. How parallel is parallel evolution? A comparative analysis in fishes. The American Naturalist, 190(1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1086/691989.

Pathani, S. S. 1981. Fecundity of mahseer Tor putitora (Ham.); Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Anim. Sci.) 90: 253-260.

Qadri, M. Y., Mir, S. and Yousuf, A. R. 2013. Breeding biology of Schizothorax richardsonii gray and hard. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 64(6): 73.

Roopma, G., Ravi, S. and Dalvinder, S. 2009. Studies on fecundity of snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) from the lotic bodies of Rajouri district (J&K). Current World Environment, 4(1): 127-132.

Roy, N. K., Raymajhi, A., Pradhan, N. and Wagle, S. K. 2011. Reproductive performance of domesticated asala (schizothorax richardsonii) in captive environment at godawari, lalitpur. (eds.): 100.

Sabha, K. K., Najar, A. M., Bhat, F. A., Shah, T. H., Balkhi, M. H. and Faisal, R. 2017. Reproductive biology of (Schizothorax niger) snow trout in Nigeen Lake Kashmir. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India, 20(1):  623-626.

Sharma, A. K. and Bargali, H. 2018. Food and feeding habits of Schizothorox Richordsonii (Gray, 1832) Inhibiting Bhagirathi River, Tehri Garhwal, India.

Singh, D. and Sharma, R. C. 1995. Age and growth of a Himalayan teleost Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) from the Garhwal Hills (India). Fisheries research, 24(4): 321-329.

Singh, Y., Dewan, S. and Bhatt, J. P. 2016. Ascertaining spawning behavior of a Himalayan trout, Schizothorax plagiostomus using combinatorial approach. Int. J. Res. Fish. Aquacul, 6: 39-46.

Simpson, A. C. 1959. The spawning of plaice in the North Sea. Fish. Invest. Lond. Ser., 2, 1-111.

Sunder, S. and Subla, B. A. 2013. On the fecundity of Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel from River Jhelum, Kashmir. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 65(3): 31.

Thapliyal, M., Bahuguna, S. N. and Thapliyal, A.  2011. Egg and early larval development of snow trout, Schizothorax richardsonii (Cyprinidae),  an important food fish of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India.  J. of Mountain Research. 5:1-8.

Thapliyal, M., Bahuguna, S. N., Chandra, T. and Thapliyal, A. 2012.  An account of ova maturation and Gonado-Somatic Index (GSI) of snow trout, Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) of Garhwal Himalaya.  Journal of Environment and Biosciences. 26 (2):  43-50.

Wagle, S. K.  2015. Studies on gonadosomatic index, fecundity and hatchability of domesticated stock of asala Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) from Nallu River of Lalitpur District. Our Nature, 12(1): 19-27.

Thapliyal, M., Bahuguna, S. N., & Thapliyal, A. (2019). Adaptive skill of Schizothorax sp. of river Alaknanda under long term pressure of urbanization and anthropogenic activities in Garhwal Himalaya. Environment Conservation Journal, 20(1&2), 157-163.

https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2019.1008.1222

Received: 29.12.2018

Revised: 08.04.2019

Accepted: 21.05.2019

First Online: 20.06. 2019

https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2019.1008.1222

MANUSCRIPT STATISTICS

Publisher Name:  Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness (ASEA)

Print : 0972-3099

Online :2278-5124