Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

Conservation Journal

"An International Journal Devoted to Conservation of Environment"


ISSN: 2278-5124 (Online) :: ISSN: 0972-3099 (Print)

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Photoperiodic regulation of reproduction in birds

 Ila Mishra

Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007


Birds time their activities in synchronization with daily and seasonal periodicities in the environment, which is mainly provided by changes in day length (=photoperiod). Photoreceptor cells in an avian brain are localized in three independent neural structures, the retina of eyes, pineal gland and hypothalamus. Deep brain photoreceptors (DBPs) localised particularly in the paraventricular organ (PVO) and lateral septal area (LSO) of hypothalamus are implicated in regulation of photoperiod induced reproductive response. DBPs relay the photoperiodic information to the pars tuberalis thyroid hormone stimulating (TSH) expressing cells. The TSH mediated signalling mediates the photoperiod induced gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the pre optic area (POA). In addition to the GnRH, other neurohormones including the neuropeptides Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and the neurosteroids, especially the brain derived testosterone contribute to regulation of the overt reproductive response and behaviour in seasonal breeding avian species. Here, we briefly review limited evidence on the roles of photoreceptors, and the local hormone variations of the hypothalamus in the regulation of seasonal physiology, particularly in the long-day breeding species.


avian, breeding, photperiodic

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Ila, M. (2017). Photoperiodic regulation of reproduction in birds. Environment Conservation Journal18(1/2), 1-8.


Received: 10.11.2016

Accepted: 12.01.2017

First Online: 15.06. 2017



Publisher Name:  Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness (ASEA)

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